high quality The wholesale Chip : How Two Americans Invented the Microchip and new arrival Launched a Revolution outlet sale

high quality The wholesale Chip : How Two Americans Invented the Microchip and new arrival Launched a Revolution outlet sale

high quality The wholesale Chip : How Two Americans Invented the Microchip and new arrival Launched a Revolution outlet sale
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Barely fifty years ago a computer was a gargantuan, vastly expensive thing that only a handful of scientists had ever seen. The world’s brightest engineers were stymied in their quest to make these machines small and affordable until the solution finally came from two ingenious young Americans. Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce hit upon the stunning discovery that would make possible the silicon microchip, a work that would ultimately earn Kilby the Nobel Prize for physics in 2000. In this completely revised and updated edition of The Chip, T.R. Reid tells the gripping adventure story of their invention and of its growth into a global information industry. This is the story of how the digital age began.

Amazon.com Review

They''re everywhere, but where did they come from? Silicon chips drive just about everything that sucks power, from toys to heart monitors, but their inventors aren''t nearly as widely known as Edison and Ford. Journalist T.R. Reid has thoroughly updated The Chip, his 1985 exploration of the life work of inventors Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce, to reflect the colossal shift toward smarter gadgets that has taken place since then.

Satisfying as both biography and basic science text, the book perfectly captures the independence and near-obsessive problem-solving talents of the two men. Though ultimately only one of them (Noyce) ended up with legal rights to the invention, they shared a respect for each other that persisted throughout their careers. Since Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize for Physics for his work, the story is all the more compelling and intriguing over 40 years after the invention. Reid''s work uncovers human dimensions we''d never expect to see from 1950s engineering research. --Rob Lightner

From Publishers Weekly

In 1958, "before Chernobyl, before the Challenger rocket blew up, before the advent of Internet porn or cell phones that ring in the middle of the opera," when "`technological progress'' still had only positive connotations," Jack Kilby had a good idea, but wasn''t sure if his boss at Texas Instruments in Dallas would let him try it. In 1959, in what would become Silicon Valley, Robert Noyce had the same idea about overcoming "the numbers barrier" in electronics: "in a computer with tens of thousands of components... things were just about impossible to make," says Noyce. In his completely revised and updated edition of The Chip: How Two Americans Invented the Microchip and Launched a Revolution, Washington Post reporter and columnist T.R. Reid (Confucius Lives Next Door) investigates these underappreciated heroes of the technological age and the global repercussions of their invention. The enormity of their accomplishment was fully recognized only in 2000, when Kilby won the Nobel Prize. 3-city author tour.

Copyright 2001 Cahners Business Information, Inc.

From Booklist

Since Reid wrote about the integrated circuit in 1985, a Nobel Prize has been awarded for the device, one of its inventors has died, and the computer revolution has changed the world. It''s time for an update. What most attracted Reid to the subject was the total obscurity of the inventors--rivals Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce--compared with the ubiquity of their invention. After a run through the history of electronics, from the vacuum tube to the solid-state amplifier, Reid delineates the electronics landscape Kilby and Noyce surveyed as young engineers in the mid-1950s. Blocking progress was the "tyranny of numbers," so named because circuits were limited in size and reliability by the need for hand soldering. Kilby and Noyce independently devised the solution: manufacturing all the components of a circuit directly from a single block of semiconducting material. Their success begat patent fights, piles of dough for Kilby''s Texas Instruments and Noyce''s Intel, trade disputes with Japan, and in 2000 the Nobel Prize for Kilby. Reid covers it all with verve and clarity. Gilbert Taylor
Copyright © American Library Association. All rights reserved

From the Inside Flap

Barely fifty years ago a computer was a gargantuan, vastly expensive thing that only a handful of scientists had ever seen. The world?s brightest engineers were stymied in their quest to make these machines small and affordable until the solution finally came from two ingenious young Americans. Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce hit upon the stunning discovery that would make possible the silicon microchip, a work that would ultimately earn Kilby the Nobel Prize for physics in 2000. In this completely revised and updated edition of The Chip, T.R. Reid tells the gripping adventure story of their invention and of its growth into a global information industry. This is the story of how the digital age began.

From the Back Cover

Barely fifty years ago a computer was a gargantuan, vastly expensive thing that only a handful of scientists had ever seen. The world''s brightest engineers were stymied in their quest to make these machines small and affordable until the solution finally came from two ingenious young Americans. Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce hit upon the stunning discovery that would make possible the silicon microchip, a work that would ultimately earn Kilby the Nobel Prize for physics in 2000. In this completely revised and updated edition of The Chip, T.R. Reid tells the gripping adventure story of their invention and of its growth into a global information industry. This is the story of how the digital age began.

About the Author

T.R. Reid is the author of five books in English and two in Japanese. Through his reporting for The Washington Post, his syndicated weekly column, and his light-hearted commentary from around the world for National Public Radio, he has become one of America’s best-known foreign correspondents. Reid lives in London.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

Chapter 1

THE MONOLITHIC IDEA

The idea occurred to Jack Kilby at the height of summer, when everyone else was on vacation and he had the lab to himself. It was an idea, as events would prove, of literally cosmic dimensions, an idea that would be honored in the textbooks with a name of its own: the monolithic idea. The idea would eventually win Kilby the Nobel Prize in Physics. This was slightly anomalous, because Jack had no training whatsoever in physics; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was willing to overlook that minor detail because Jack''s idea did, after all, change the daily life of almost everyone on earth for the better. But all that was in the future. At the time Kilby hit on the monolithic idea-it was July 1958-he only hoped that his boss would let him build a model and give the new idea a try.

The boss was still an unknown quantity. It had been less than two months since Jack Kilby arrived in Dallas to begin work at Texas Instruments, and the new employee did not yet have a firm sense of where he stood. Jack had been delighted and flattered when Willis Adcock, the famous silicon pioneer, had offered him a job at TI''s semiconductor research group. It was just about the first lucky break of Jack Kilby''s career; he would be working for one of the most prominent firms in electronics, with the kind of colleagues and facilities that could help a hard-working young

engineer solve important problems. Still, the pleasure was tempered with some misgivings. Jack''s wife, Barbara, and their two young daughters had been happy in Milwaukee, and Jack''s career had blossomed there. In a decade working at a small electronics firm called Centralab, Kilby had made twelve patentable inventions (including the reduced titanate capacitor and the steatite-packaged transistor). Each patent brought a small financial bonus from the firm and a huge feeling of satisfaction. Indeed, Jack said later that the most important discovery he made at Centralab was the sheer joy of inventing. It was problem solving, really: you identified the problem, worked through 5 or 50 or 500 possible approaches, found ways to circumvent the limits that nature had built into materials and forces, and perfected the one solution that worked. It was an intense, creative process, and Jack loved it with a passion. It was that infatuation with problem solving that had lured him, at the age of thirty-four, to take a chance on the new job in Dallas. Texas Instruments was an important company, and it was putting him to work on the most important problem in electronics.

By the late 1950s, the problem-the technical journals called it "the interconnections problem" or "the numbers barrier" or, more poetically, "the tyranny of numbers"-was a familiar one to the physicists and engineers who made up the electronics community. But it was still a secret to the rest of the world. In the 1950s, before Chernobyl, before the Challenger rocket blew up, before the advent of Internet porn or cell phones that ring in the middle of the opera, the notion of "technological progress" still had only positive connotations. Americans were looking ahead with happy anticipation to a near future when all the creations of science fiction, from Dick Tracy''s wrist radio to Buck Rogers''s air base on Mars, would become facts of daily life. Already in 1958 you could pull a transistor radio out of your pocket-a radio in your pocket!-and hear news of a giant electronic computer that was receiving signals beamed at the speed of light from a miniaturized transmitter in a man-made satellite orbiting the earth at 18,000 miles per hour. Who could blame people for expecting new miracles tomorrow?

There was an enormous appetite for news about the future, an appetite that magazines and newspapers were happy to feed. The major breakthroughs in biology, genetics, and medicine were still a few years away, but in electronics, the late fifties saw some marvelous innovation almost every month. First came the transistor, the invention that gave birth to the new electronic age-and then there was the tecnetron, the spacistor, the nuvistor, the thyristor. It hardly seemed remarkable when the venerable British journal New Scientist predicted the imminent development of a new device, the "neuristor," which would perform all the functions of a human neuron and so make possible the ultimate prosthetic device-the artificial brain. Late in 1956 a Life magazine reporter dug out a secret Pentagon plan for a new kind of missile-a troop-carrying missile that could pick up a platoon at a base in the United States and then "loop through outer space and land the troops 500 miles behind enemy lines in less than 30 minutes." A computer in the missile''s nose cone would assure the pinpoint accuracy required to make such flights possible. A computer in a nose cone? That was a flight of fancy in itself. The computers of the 1950s were enormous contraptions that filled whole rooms-in some cases, whole buildings-and consumed the power of a

locomotive. But that, too, would give way to progress. Sperry-Rand, the maker of UNIVAC, the computer that had leaped to overnight fame on November 4, 1952, when it predicted Dwight Eisenhower''s electoral victory one hour after the polls closed, was said to be working on computers that would fit on a desktop. And that would be just the beginning. Soon enough there would be computers in a briefcase, computers in a wristwatch, computers on the head of a pin.

Jack Kilby and his colleagues in the electronics business-the people who were supposed to make all these miracles come true-read the articles with a rueful sense of amusement. There actually were plans on paper to implement just about every fantasy the popular press reported; there were, indeed, preliminary blueprints that went far beyond the popular imagination. Engineers were already making their first rough plans for high-capacity computers that could steer a rocket to the moon or connect every library in the world to a single worldwide web accessible from any desk. But it was all on paper. It was all impossible to produce because of the limitation posed by the tyranny of numbers. The interconnections problem stood as an impassable barrier blocking all future progress in electronics.

And now, on a muggy summer''s day in Dallas, Jack Kilby had an idea that might break down the barrier. Right from the start, he thought he might be on to something revolutionary, but he did his best to retain a professional caution. A lot of revolutionary ideas, after all, turn out to have fatal flaws. Day after day, working alone in the empty lab, he went over the idea, scratching pictures in his lab notebook, sketching circuits, planning how he might build a model. As an inventor, Jack knew that a lot of spectacular ideas fall to pieces if you look at them too hard. But this one was different: the more he studied it, the more he looked for flaws, the better it looked.

When his colleagues came back from vacation, Jack showed his notebook to Willis Adcock. "He was enthused," Jack wrote later, "but skeptical." Adcock remembers it the same way. "I was very interested," he recalled afterward. "But what Jack was saying, it was pretty damn cumbersome; you would have had a terrible time trying to produce it." Jack kept pushing for a test of the new idea. But a test would require a model; that could cost $10,000, maybe more. There were other projects around, and Adcock was supposed to move ahead on them.

Jack Kilby is a gentle soul, easygoing and unhurried. A lanky, casual, down-home type with a big leathery face that wraps around an enormous smile, he talks slowly, slowly in a quiet voice that has never lost the soft country twang of Great Bend, Kansas, where he grew up. That deliberate mode of speech reflects a careful, deliberate way of thinking. Adcock, in contrast, is a zesty sprite who talks a mileaminute and still can''t keep up with his racing train of thought. That summer, though, it was Kilby who was pushing to race ahead. After all, if they didn''t develop this new idea, somebody else might hit on it. Texas Instruments, after all, was hardly the only place in the world where people were trying to overcome the tyranny of numbers.

The monolithic idea occurred to Robert Noyce in the depth of winter-or at least in the mildly chilly season that passes for winter in the sunny valley of San Francisco Bay that is known today, because of that idea, as Silicon Valley. Unlike Kilby, Bob Noyce did not have to check with the boss when he got an idea; at the age of thirty-one, Noyce was the boss.

It was January 1959, and the valley was still largely an agricultural domain, with only a handful of electronics firms sprouting amid the endless peach and prune orchards. One of those pioneering firms, Fairchild Semiconductor, had been started late

in 1957 by a group of physicists and engineers who guessed-

correctly, as it turned out-that they could become fantastically rich by producing improved versions of transistors and other mechanical devices. The group was long on mechanical talent and short on managerial skills, but one of the founders turned out to have both: Bob Noyce. A slender, square-jawed man who exuded the easy self-assurance of a jet pilot, Noyce had an unbounded curiosity that led him, at one time or another, to take up hobbies ranging from madrigal singing to flying seaplanes. His doctorate was in physics, and his technical specialty was photolithography, an exotic process for printing circuit boards that required state-of-the-art knowledge of photography, chemistry, and circuit design. Like Jack Kilby, Noyce preferred to direct his powerful intelligence at specific problems that needed solving, and he shared with Kilby an intense sense of exhilaration when he found a way to leap over some difficult technical obstacle. At Fairchild, though, he also became fascinated with the discipline of management, and gravitated to the position of director of research and development. In that job, Noyce spent most of his time searching for profitable solutions to the problems facing the electronics industry. In the second half of the 1950s, that meant he was puzzling over things like the optimum alloy to use for base and emitter contacts in double-diffuse transistors, or efficient ways to passivate junctions within the silicon wafer. Those were specific issues involving the precise components Fairchild was producing at the time. But Noyce also gave some thought during the winter of 1958-59 to a much broader concern: the tyranny of numbers.

Unlike the quiet, introverted Kilby, who does his best work alone, thinking carefully through a problem, Noyce was an outgoing, loquacious, impulsive inventor who needed somebody to listen to his ideas and point out the ones that couldn''t possibly work. That winter, Noyce''s main sounding board was his friend Gordon Moore, a thoughtful, cautious physical chemist who was another cofounder of Fairchild Semiconductor. Noyce would barge into Moore''s cubicle, full of energy and excitement, and start scrawling on the blackboard: "If we built a resistor here, and the transistor over here, then maybe you could . . ."

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4.5 out of 54.5 out of 5
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Top reviews from the United States

Martin Vesely
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Book both for laypersons and specialists in the field
Reviewed in the United States on February 28, 2018
From my point of view, the book is worth reading both for laypersons interested in technique and specialists in the field. It is nice combination of technical subject and history (both business one and technical one). In the first chapter, the author brings short... See more
From my point of view, the book is worth reading both for laypersons interested in technique and specialists in the field. It is nice combination of technical subject and history (both business one and technical one). In the first chapter, the author brings short introduction to the chips and their importance for electronics as we know it today. Then brief history of electronic parts, going from discovery that current can go through vaccum to termionic valves to transistors and finally to integrated circuits is provided. Next two chapters are dedicated to Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce CVs and their ideas how to build chips . Then legal battle between Texas Instruments and Fairchild Semiconductors for patent of integrated circuit is described. After it, the author is telling story about integrated circuits using in many fields. The author included two purely technical chapters as well. First one is on binary logic and computer science development. and second one is concerning calculator (or primitive computer) and how it works. Last chapter is decicated to last years of both inventors of chip.

Overall, the book is very nice and very readable. I understand that the book is aimed at as much as possible wide spectrum of readers, however, sometimes it suffers from technical inaccuracy.
Firstly, the author claimed that loudspeaker in radio works with direct current because the rectifier is used in the radio. It is wrong since speaker operates with AC but with relatively low frequency in comparison with radio signal. The reason for using rectifier is to get modulation envelope (what is more, this is true only for AM radios). Then high frequency part of signal is filtered by capacitor and AC low frequency current for loudspeak is gained.
Second issue is concerning Boolean logic. The author says that equation x^2 = x is valid in Boolean logic since it has solution 0 and 1. That is true, however, it is not reason why this equation is important for Boolean algebra. The true reason is that the equation says: "Power of logical variable is always variable itself". Similar law is valid for logical addition, namely x + x = x.

Finally, I would like to note that the autor consider Mr. Deming (founder of quality management noted in conjuction with Japanese chip manufactures) as somebody who firstly used statistics to imporove manufacturing processes. Personally, I think it is not true since first man who used scientific approach of this kind was Taylor in the beginning of 20th century.
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Brent J. Nordquist
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
A nice history
Reviewed in the United States on August 2, 2020
I''m a computer science major and have tinkered with electronics my whole life, so of course this book would interest me. Reid covers the technical aspects in easy-to-understand language, but to me the heart of the book is the story of the historical context and the people... See more
I''m a computer science major and have tinkered with electronics my whole life, so of course this book would interest me. Reid covers the technical aspects in easy-to-understand language, but to me the heart of the book is the story of the historical context and the people and organizations whose discoveries and inventions culminated in the integrated chip, and the impact it had. I think he''s gotten just the right length and level of detail to keep it very interesting. Non-technical people who are interested in entrepreneurs and inventors should still find this a good read.
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Kindle Customer
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
A fascinating dive into technology
Reviewed in the United States on February 24, 2020
A compelling and absorbing dive into the origins and development of the microchip which an integral part of our modern world. It is a fitting tribute to the comparatively little known inventors, their tussles with conceptual innovation, competition, development and... See more
A compelling and absorbing dive into the origins and development of the microchip which an integral part of our modern world.
It is a fitting tribute to the comparatively little known inventors, their tussles with conceptual innovation, competition, development and eventual commercialization.
Prior to reading this book, I had no idea of the story behind the heart of so many devices we take for granted in our everyday lives, but I certainly recall the day when a computer appeared on my desk, replacing the frustrating and drawn out practice of communicating via fax machine and ticker tape!
A “must read” for anyone who is curious to uncover the human side and origins of our modern technology.
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William Meyer
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Excellent history
Reviewed in the United States on January 13, 2020
This is a non-technical history of the invention of integrated circuits. Somewhat reminiscent of Tracy Kidder''s "The Soul of a New Machine", though this one tries harder to present extremely simple explanations of some basic computer concepts. That part grows a bit tedious,... See more
This is a non-technical history of the invention of integrated circuits. Somewhat reminiscent of Tracy Kidder''s "The Soul of a New Machine", though this one tries harder to present extremely simple explanations of some basic computer concepts. That part grows a bit tedious, and the story would not have suffered for its omission.

Still, this is a very readable account of two men whose invention truly changed our lives.
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Yarngirl52
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Readable, incredibly informative for the non-engineer
Reviewed in the United States on February 4, 2020
Reid''s book is clear, understandable, but delves into electronics, in general, and tie integrated circuit, in particular. He begins with Jack Kilby and Bib Noyes and the monolithic idea, but then the story goes back in time covering all that lead to the microchip. I... See more
Reid''s book is clear, understandable, but delves into electronics, in general, and tie integrated circuit, in particular. He begins with Jack Kilby and Bib Noyes and the monolithic idea, but then the story goes back in time covering all that lead to the microchip. I particularly liked that he focused on who invented rather than what was invented.

Reid treated his roux much like Kilby and Noyes: he took the problem and found a solution. Kilby and Noyes needed a solution to the tyranny of numbers. Reid needed to get behind the machine to the human creativity svc innovation. Both solutions are elegant.
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Amazon Customer
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
The Third Revolution
Reviewed in the United States on January 28, 2020
important technical events ably presented, that created much of what we call modern--calculators, cellphones, computers, and even the innards of auto engines. If you know generally about such technology, you''d really enjoy this book. If you don''t already know a little... See more
important technical events ably presented, that created much of what we call modern--calculators, cellphones, computers, and even the innards of auto engines. If you know generally about such technology, you''d really enjoy this book. If you don''t already know a little about such relationships, you''re probably too dumb to understand it and should find some simpler book with crayons.
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john bystrek
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Good, but not great
Reviewed in the United States on May 4, 2020
The story of the two men slowly working on the invention that would change everyday life, and their competition to see who would own the patent is a wonderful story, and reading it feels like the American Dream. The problem is that the book is not always focused. The author... See more
The story of the two men slowly working on the invention that would change everyday life, and their competition to see who would own the patent is a wonderful story, and reading it feels like the American Dream. The problem is that the book is not always focused. The author jumps focus constantly back and forth between times and ideas. These parts of the book were a mess. When discussing Japanese firms invading American markets, the time would jump constantly. First it would be the 70s, then the 50s, then the 80s, then the 60s, then back to the 80’s/90’s. Not all books have to be chronologically organized, but they should be at least logically organized. The majority of the ninth chapter, DIM – I, is about exactly how a calculator is supposed to work, and I can find no purpose on why this was included in the book. People could learn about this if they wanted to. It provides only the tiniest bit of context to the story about how Kilby went on to make a pocket calculator. It is unnecessary for both professionals and nonprofessionals. Reid would go at lengths to talk about some other inventors’ idea and stray away from what should have been the main story, Kilby and Noyce. The second chapter, about the history of computation, while informative, seemed unnecessary as well. I believe this book was written with the average person as the audience, but the average layperson reading this book did not need to learn how the triode was created and how it operates. It feels as though the author was filling space in a book that did not meet some length criteria. While the story was focused on the inventors, it was brilliant, and I wished it stayed on focus more
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Mehmet C. OZTURK
1.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Book with errors
Reviewed in the United States on July 20, 2020
This book is reaching much further than its author’s understanding of semiconductor devices. The author is referring to the point contact transistor as the device Shockley had thought of in 1939, he is referring to the terminals of a BJT as gate, source and drain, which... See more
This book is reaching much further than its author’s understanding of semiconductor devices. The author is referring to the point contact transistor as the device Shockley had thought of in 1939, he is referring to the terminals of a BJT as gate, source and drain, which are both mega mistakes historically and technically. It is painful to go through some of the pages.
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Top reviews from other countries

Michael
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
20th century history to be proud off
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on August 16, 2021
What enjoyable and fantastic read. Well written easy for any one to understand, with real heroes. One of the best books I''ve read this year.
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The Reader
3.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Overhere and overdone
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on July 22, 2011
I''m not sure that the Americans deserve as much of the credit as would have us believe. The book deviates, much like so many Hollywood movies, but then why let the truth interfere with a good story. Not withstanding, it is a reasonably good book
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Amazon Customer
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
This is a nice piece of industrial and technical history
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on September 10, 2014
This is a nice piece of industrial and technical history. It was interesting to see how people reacted to things back then when before chips and society evolved into so much more.
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Pankaj Kumar Saini
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Must buy
Reviewed in India on May 27, 2020
I found the book really easy to read and very informative.... It touches through the life of inventors and what they went through to create the modern world we love in. Scientific concepts are explained simply although not in deep....
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Amazon Customer
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Reid has succintly captured the story of two disparate individuals ...
Reviewed in India on May 21, 2017
Reid has succintly captured the story of two disparate individuals who tried to solve the problem of "tyranny of numbers" in their own way ; apart from sketching these two characters, he also provides some details on technology, the practical problems encountered,...See more
Reid has succintly captured the story of two disparate individuals who tried to solve the problem of "tyranny of numbers" in their own way ; apart from sketching these two characters, he also provides some details on technology, the practical problems encountered, how govt organisations pitched in to assist the innovations - all are neatly captured and to the core. Hats Off !
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